Different groups of people gather together on a paved, gridded square.

CRONOS-2 data released

Data collected through the world’s first large scale, cross-national, probability-based input-harmonised web panel has been published by the European Social Survey (ESS).

The CROss-National Online Survey-2 (CRONOS-2) panel was fielded in 12 countries - Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom - from November 2021 until March 2023.

At the end of the main ESS Round 10 (2020-22) survey, respondents were asked to participate in the online panel across six waves.

All the data collected is freely available for download through the ESS Data Portal.

Post-stratification weights are available to be applied to the data

Questions for cross-national waves 1, 2, 4 and 5 were selected for inclusion following an open competition. More information about these modules can be found below.

For the first time, a longitudinal component was added to the ESS via the CRONOS-2 (the modules on drivers of institutional trust, COVID-19 vaccination, perception of surveys, and financial wellbeing included this).

Respondents were asked country-specific questions during waves 3 and 6 (country-specific waves), composed by national teams in each country.

Wave 1 included questions measuring attitudes towards climate policies, specifically about taxes on fossil fuels and plastic products, subsidising renewable energy and banning the least energy efficient household appliances.

The module also examined attitudes towards retraining workers who lose their jobs because of new environmental policies and taxes on imports of goods from countries with weaker environmental laws.

Respondents in Wave 1 were asked whether they would get and support voluntary or mandatory COVID-19 vaccinations in a module that was repeated in Wave 5.

Questions about trust in public services and the integrity of politicians focused on attitudes towards public services, health plans, business regulation, the integrity of politicians and local/regional political decisions.

Wave 1 also included questions about the perceptions of surveys, specifically on whether people enjoy responding to surveys, whether surveys are important for society and if respondents are asked to complete too many.

Wave 2 included several items on welfare policies in Europe and the redistribution of wealth. Questions sought responses to whether European Union (EU) citizens should be allowed the same welfare support as national citizens, the role of the EU in the welfare state and whether the EU should support income redistribution or provide financial support to member countries in emergencies.

A module on the beginning and end of life included questions previously asked in the European Values Study (EVS) on abortion, euthanasia, suicide and IVF, whilst two new items on surrogacy and triage were added. It also included items on religiosity, family and institutional trust.

Questions about the financial wellbeing of respondents were also featured in Wave 2 (and repeated in Wave 5). Data is available for respondents’ perceived financial status, whether they feel knowledgeable about finance and their level of risk when it comes to financial investment.

Wave 2 concluded with questions on memory policies, a module which focused on attitudes towards commemorative ceremonies, memorials, and public speeches.

National teams in each country fielded their own questions for Wave 3.

Wave 4 included several Items measuring attitudes towards technocracy and populism, which discovered people’s opinions on the decision-making of politicians, whether politicians represent the people and if they have the necessary education and skills to govern effectively.

A set of questions to measure attitudes towards family circumstances included items about whether children fare as well with one or both biological parents, step-parents or gay and lesbian parents and who they should live with in the event of parental separation.

Questions measuring the mental health of respondents during COVID-19 were also included in Wave 4, specifically the frequency of depressive symptoms, signs of anxiety and experience of post-traumatic stress.

The final module in this wave focused on the culturally sensitive study of societal development, which aimed to establish what people think signifies a good society.

It listed 15 items - including the eradication of poverty, health and longevity of citizens, good education, economic prosperity and protection of human rights - and asked respondents how much these elements should be prioritised.

Wave 5 measured trust in science, with questions on general trust in science, trust in specific scientific disciplines and agreement to a series of scientific statements on gender, wealth redistribution, the universe, antibiotics, climate and genetically modified crops.

Further questions in Wave 5 focused on taxes, welfare and the redistribution of wealth. These focused on whether taxes on middle- and high-income earners should be increased, if financial help should be provided for those on low incomes and the importance to income of hard work, talent, family circumstances and luck.

Attitudes towards government or public health information during the pandemic were measured in this wave. Questions covered the consistency of messaging, accessibility of information, and whether guidance was relevant, understandable and easy to comply with.

Respondents were also asked whether they feel that they have been ignored or ostracised by others.

This web panel was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 871063.

It builds on the success of the pioneering CRONOS panel, implemented in three countries - Estonia, Great Britain and Slovenia - during 2016-18 as part of the SERISS project (grant agreement 654221).